Basic principles of exercise - Points to bring out the maximum practicing effect
Basic principles of exercise - Points to bring out the maximum practising effect
There are various things in motion theory, and as to "what kind of exercise can get the best results", opinions are split among kinematic scholars, sports scientists, and on-site leaders.
Im not in a position to decide who and what is right, but In addition to kinematics and sports science, I will introduce the theories that I think is most influential now from the viewpoint of evolutionary biology and brain science.
Below are five points.
Understanding the purpose and meaning of practice
Repeat practice carefully and frequently the correct behaviour
Training according to the series of movements that you want to master
To avoid "similar but different actions" as much as possible
I will explain it in detail.
◆ What is learning for animals?◆ Animal learning has a simple law.
For animals, it is necessary to learn thoroughly as meaningful actions as hunting prey, running away, acquiring a partner and so on. On the other hand, it is judged that the meaningless movement is not as important as it is learned, so it can not be learned quite easily. This has been confirmed by numerous studies conducted on humans and it is very important to understand that "this training has a △△ effect due to a ___ mechanism" before starting exercise It can be said. If you do not understand it, just imitating movement, the motion effect will halve (this is not only for exercise but also for study).
And for animals, the sequence of actions that are repeated over and over is mostly the movement that is necessary to survive. When hunting prey, when escaping from predators ..., everything is necessary movement in life. The more you move, the more you repeat it, the more you repeat the more it is the more necessary movement. For that reason, the brain learns that it repeats a series of movements as important as it is repeated, strengthening the movement. (From evolutionary biology) In the brain, the movement repeated over and over is "movement to learn". For that reason, "to have a purpose and meaning in exercise" and "to repeat frequently" become a very important point in exercise learning.
◆ Maximum muscle strength can not be issued ◆ In the first place, human muscles can show up only about 70% of the maximum muscle strength even if you can emphasize "Mugi ~!" This is because the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) controls so that the muscles are not damaged by a large force (load). Especially, humans with insufficient exercise can exert only 50 to 60% even if you emphasize yourself exactly. Meanwhile, first-class athletes are able to demonstrate about 90% strength. (Incidentally, there is a "horsepower of the fire place", but that is caused by the fact that the control of the central nerve (brain and spinal cord) is released by an emergency situation and it can demonstrate the muscular strength close to 100%, in particular For a crisis facing "death", even if you slightly hurt your muscles, it is more important to evacuate from there than usual. So what do you do to exert a great force close to maximum muscle strength during exercise? Before I explain it, I need to talk about the active and antagonist muscles.
◆ Agonist Muscle and antagonist muscle ◆ Agonist muscle of motion is the muscle that works mainly when moving the body. And antagonist muscle, as its name suggests, antagonist muscle. For example, the antagonistic muscles of the muscles (biceps brachialis) that bend the elbow are the muscles (elbow triceps) that extend the elbow. When conscious of "bending the elbow!", The biceps brachii muscle acting muscle contracts and the triceps brachiius, which is an antagonistic muscle, relaxes. But what will happen if this antagonist muscle contracts with the agonist muscle? The answer is simple. Even though I want to bend my elbow, my muscles that extend my elbows are powerful, so my arm gets crazy and I can not bend my elbow well.
Since the above example is a simple movement, it seldom happens that "I get nervous to the antagonist muscle", but it will occur frequently in a movement that requires a complex and strong muscular power like a sport is. Whatever sports you are, beginners tend to be in a state where movement is crazy and "power is too much". Especially, the more you become conscious of "more powerful!" "More quickly!" This is exactly what makes the antagonist muscle tense. For example, if you are swinging golf, if the only active muscle is working, you will be able to swing swift quickly (strictly speaking, it is impossible that only active muscles work, but for explanation like this It is expressed in). However, if the force enters the antagonistic muscles (the muscles used when swinging in reverse, as usual), it is normal for the speed of the swing to be reduced, as it is in a condition that the brakes are on. I often hear that "better skiing fly", but I think that there are many people who cannot understand it. However, if you understand that "it is better to skip the power of the antagonist, you often fly", you can understand well.
Thus, in sports, "tension of antagonist muscle" which is a major factor that decreases performance, it is meaningful for the antagonist to work this way. It is to protect joints, muscles, bones and ligaments. I explained earlier "Many people can not demonstrate maximum muscle strength," but it is the same work as that. For example, when kicking a ball with football, if all the active muscles work at a stroke, the hip will move fairly quickly. However, if the antagonist does not apply the brake, the hip will bend as it is and the hip muscle and ligament will be damaged as well. In order to prevent such a thing, the brain controls unconsciously the antagonist muscle and controls not to exert maximum muscle strength of the active muscle. The more you are a beginner, the weaker the muscular strength, the less you are used to the movement, it will be easy to damage your muscles and ligaments. The brain controls me to prevent it. And this, "To unlock control of antagonist muscles and to demonstrate the best of active manners," is a leading sports athlete.
◆ Repetition, and repetition ◆ Even top-ranking athletes can demonstrate maximum muscle strength only in the athletes' competitions. (Of course, muscle strength can be demonstrated at a higher rate than general people) The reason is simple. Athletes have repeatedly practised the series of actions in that competition for hours, days, years. Every sport, hundreds of muscles are involved in a series of movements. There is no other than iterative practice to make those muscles work with cooperation. Repetitive practice enables smooth cooperative movements, suppresses excessive tension of antagonist muscles, and enables you to demonstrate muscular strength close to maximum muscle strength.
◆ Carefully, Carefully ◆ For the brain, everything that is experienced is remembered as a fact. In other words, both the incorrect form and the correct form will be stored in the brain as well. It is impossible to say to the brain that "Do not memorize it now because it is a mistake." Many athletes tend to have strong feelings of "more powerful!" "More quickly", and seem to have neglected a few form errors. As I mentioned earlier, the more you are conscious of 'more powerful!' 'More quickly', the antagonist muscle will work more. Then, for the brain, the function of the antagonist is also "experience", so "the actions of antagonistic muscles will be remembered together". That means that I get acquainted with a poor performance form. Better than that, it is more effective to wear the correct form by suppressing the useless antagonistic muscle by repeatedly practicing by checking the form slowly and carefully with a weak force at the beginning. And if you learn the correct form, you will gradually become stronger and move faster. Powerful, quick! The practice of saying that the correct form is hard to learn no matter how many times it is repeated. However, if you repeatedly practice the correct form, you will be more likely to acquire strength and quickness. It is obvious which is better.
◆ Muscle training mistakes ◆ Still in Japan's sports circle, the recognition that "beginners should start with physical cultivation!" Is strong, only muscle training has been done, and there are cases in which the amount of repetition of the muscle training exceeds the repetition volume of the actual series of movements. If this is done to the brain, it will assume that the "movement of muscle workout" with a large amount of repetition becomes "the movement that should be learned most".
Instead, it is better to increase the amount of repetition of the proper movement (of course have a purpose and a firm meaning), and the volume of muscle strength training should reduced.
From the start, while repetitively practising a series of movements in sports, you will be able to produce muscle strength close to the maximum of your muscle strength.
As a result, as the athlete will be able to use the muscles with the intensity that they have not used until now (again repeated many times!), small amount of damage will occur to the muscles fibers. When you recover from the damage, you recover with increased muscle mass (super recovery). In other words, this is the same effect as muscle strengthening training. “”The Physiology Of Muscle Growth After you workout, your body repairs or replaces damaged muscle fibers through a cellular process where it fuses muscle fibers together to form new muscle protein strands or myofibrils. These repaired myofibrils increase in thickness and number to create muscle hypertrophy (growth).1 Muscle growth occurs whenever the rate of muscle protein synthesis is greater than the rate of muscle protein breakdown. This adaption, however, does not happen while you actually lift the weights. Instead, it occurs while you rest.””
If when "becoming a first-class player, the form is nearly perfect, but the record still stagnates", there will be a necessity to do muscle strengthening training to aim for further higher skill development. However, there are very few athletes that reach this level.
Before training your muscular strength training, you should carefully check the form and carry out repetition practice over and over again. In the meantime, Naturally while doing it, the required muscle strength comes naturally. (I will post about the effective muscle strengthening training another time.
◆ Choose Physical training along with practice ◆
In order to learn a series of actions, the shortest way is the method of breaking it done into parts, assess and then repeat it.
For example, if you want to master the backflip,
Repetition practice of the degree of bending of the knees at the first jump and how to swing the hands,
Practice repeatedly from the handstand to the landing and repeat,
Put it all together
Also, to help you learn a series of actions, it is also effective to apply assistance and repeat the correct movements.
And here is something that you should not do, such as squat strength training. How to use the squat's feet is quite different from that of the backflip. But they are similar. Actually, this "similar but different (wrong) movement" becomes the biggest obstacle to learning.
In the brain, there is a characteristic that "similar movements are hard to learn" (referred to as "memory interference"). For example, when you remember an English word, it is easier to remember words with completely different spelling than to remember similarly spelled words. And this is the same for exercise. Repeating "something similar but different movement", like squatting to want to remember backflip and doing something faster, like raising the thigh (similar movement for running but different) it interferes with "the correct form that resembles it" and it hinders learning of the correct form.
On the other hand, there is also a way to prevent interference of this memory as much as possible. That is to make similar operation exercise intervals more than a few hours. So what if you are a baseball pitcher and you want to improve the poor control, what should I do? Which do you think is more effective, 'practice to throw into a different course, just like practice,' and 'practice to throw on the same course each time'? The answer is the latter.
To throw a single ball one way, it means that the form is changed each time, such as a single ball, a slight change in the angle of the arm, or a timing at which the finger leaves. In the brain, one ball, one sphere, "Because it is similar, but a different form", it will be difficult to learn the actions that you make on any one way. Rather than that, in order to avoid interference of memory, in the morning it is better to repeatedly exercise the lower exterior angle, allow a space of a few hours apart, then repeat the interior high elevation only in the evening ... and so on. And this is the same for basketball, football, tennis, volleyball etc (studying) as well. There are cases in which such exercise is practically impossible, but it seems that it will be a good result if you devise it by changing the practice law every day of the week.
◆ Importance of feedback ◆ Feedback means, to briefly explain, “a reaction or response to a particular process or activity”// “knowledge of the results if any behavior, considered as influencing or modifying further performance. I will again take a case of golf as an example, When taking a video camera to the golf course, taking pictures of everyone and then screening the videos, people who have never seen their swing almost certainly take a reaction like "Eh! Is that really my swing?! Or My swing looks so weird !?",
To tell the truth, it is very difficult to accurately grasp your own behaviour. You intended to make a swing with beautiful form, Actually taking the video and seeing it is totally different from what I thought, it is so hard to believe how totally different from what I thought.
And this is what we can say for every move. Even the simple action of "walking" seems to be. Perhaps, there are few people who accurately recognize the posture that he is walking normally.
Even if you learn a correct form in sports, if you do not recognize your movement completely, you do not know what to improve. Therefore, practising in front of the mirror, photographing frequently in video and checking, etc., you need to objectify yourself. Without the shooting equipment, it is desirable that the coach is qualified, and as soon as possible check the form and tell firmly what to do. The biggest reason why it is difficult to fix "habit" is because "I can not objectively see myself". On the contrary, even in "habit" which is said to be difficult to fix, it is also possible to improve relatively quickly if thorough feedback is taken.
The correct form is very important both for improving performance and preventing injury. If you are saying "I have never seen my form," we recommend you to take a picture and check it now.
◆ Summary ◆ It got longer, but last time.
Understanding the purpose and meaning of practice
Doing training according to the series of movements you want to master
Carefully and frequently repeatedly practice the correct behaviour
To avoid "similar but different actions" as much as possible
When exercising, please keep this in mind. This is the basic principle for effectively improving athletic ability.